Brain Transplant Possible!!!! (But Only Theoretically)

brain transplant or whole-body transplant is a procedure in which the brain of one organism is transplanted into the body of another. It is a procedure distinct from head transplantation, which involves transferring the entire head to a new body, as opposed to the brain only. Theoretically, a person with advanced organ failure could be given a new and functional body while keeping their own personality, memories, and consciousness through such a procedure.

No human brain transplant has ever been conducted. Neurosurgeon Robert J. White, has grafted the head of a monkey onto the headless body of another monkey. EEG readings showed the brain was later functioning normally. It was thought to prove that the brain was an immunologically privileged organ, as the host’s immune system did not attack it at first, but immunorejection caused the monkey to die after nine days. Brain transplants and similar concepts have also been explored in various forms of science fiction.

Advertisements

Heart Transplantation is Possible

A heart transplant is a surgical procedure performed to remove the diseased heart from a patient and replace it with a healthy one from an organ donor. In order to remove the heart from the donor, two or more doctors must declare the donor brain-dead.

Before a person can be put on a waiting list for a heart transplant, a doctor makes the determination that this is the best treatment option available for the person’s heart failure.

About the heart

The heart is the hardest working muscle in the human body. Located almost in the center of the chest, the adult human heart is about the size of one fist.

At an average rate of 80 times a minute, the heart beats about 115,000 times in one day or 42 million times in a year. During an average lifetime, the human heart will beat more than 3 billion times, pumping an amount of blood that equals about 1 million barrels. Even when a person is at rest, the heart is continuously hard at work.

How the heart works

The cardiovascular system, composed of the heart and blood vessels, is responsible for circulating blood throughout your body to supply the tissues with oxygen and nutrients.

The heart is the muscle that pumps blood filled with oxygen and nutrients through the blood vessels to the body tissues. It is made up of:

  • Four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) that receive blood from the body (the atria) and pump out blood to it (the ventricles).
    • The right atrium receives blood from the body, which is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide.
    • The right ventricle pumps the blood from the right atrium into the lungs to provide it with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
    • The left atrium receives blood from the lungs, which is rich in oxygen.
    • The left ventricle pumps the blood from the left atrium into the body, supplying all organs with blood.
  • Blood vessels, which compose a network of arteries and veins that carry blood throughout the body.
    • Arteries transport blood from the heart to the body tissues.
    • Veins carry blood back to the heart.
  • Four valves to prevent backward flow of blood.
    • Each valve is designed to allow the forward flow of blood and prevent  backward flow.
  • An electrical system of the heart that stimulates contraction of the heart muscle.

Reasons for the procedure

Heart transplantation is performed to replace a failing heart that cannot be adequately treated by other means.

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

End-stage heart failure is a disease in which the heart muscle is failing severely in its attempt to pump blood through the body, and in which all other available treatments are no longer helping to improve the heart’s function. End-stage heart failure is the final stage of heart failure. Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, or CHF, is a condition that occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood sufficiently. Despite its name, a diagnosis of heart failure does NOT mean the heart is about to stop beating. The term “failure” refers to the fact that the heart muscle is failing to pump blood in the normal manner because it has become weakened.

Some causes of CHF, or weakening of the heart muscle, may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Heart attack (also called myocardial infarction)
  • Viral infection of the heart muscle
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Valvular heart disease
  • Congenital (present at birth) heart conditions
  • Cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats)
  • Pulmonary hypertension (elevated blood pressure within the lungs’ blood vessels)
  • Alcoholism or drug abuse
  • Chronic lung diseases, such as emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Cardiomyopathy (an enlargement of the heart muscle)
  • Anemia (low red blood cell count)

There may be other reasons for your doctor to recommend heart transplantation.

Risks of the procedure

As with any surgery, complications may occur. Potential risks associated with heart transplantation may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Infection
  • Bleeding during or after the surgery
  • Blood clots that can cause heart attack, stroke, or lung problems
  • Breathing problems
  • Kidney failure
  • Coronary arteriopathy (similar to coronary artery disease)

The new heart may be rejected by the body’s immune system. Rejection is the body’s normal reaction to a foreign object or tissue. When a new heart is transplanted into a recipient’s body, the immune system reacts to what it perceives as a threat and attacks the new organ, not realizing that the transplanted heart is beneficial. To allow the transplanted organ to survive in a new body, medications must be taken to trick the immune system into accepting the transplant and not attacking it as a foreign object.

The medications used to prevent or treat rejection have side effects. The exact side effects will depend on the specific medications that are taken.

Contraindications for heart transplantation include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Current or recurring infection that cannot be treated effectively
  • Metastatic cancer. This is when cancer has spread from its primary location to one or more additional locations in the body.
Heart Transplantation is Possible

Evolution of Ostrich

untitled (2)The earliest fossil of ostrich-like birds is the Palaeotis living near the Asiatic steppes[5] from the Middle Eocene, a mid-sized flightless bird that was originally believed to be a bustard. Apart from this enigmatic bird, the fossil record of the ostriches continues with several species of the modern genus Struthio which are known from the Early Miocene onwards. While the relationship of the African species is comparatively straightforward, a large number of Asian species of ostrich have been described from fragmentary remains, and their interrelationships and how they relate to the African ostriches are confusing. In China, ostriches are known to have become extinct only around or even after the end of the last ice age; images of ostriches have been found there on prehistoric pottery and petroglyphs.[31]

Several of these fossil forms are ichnotaxa (that is, classified according to the organism’s footprints or other trace rather than its body) and their association with those described from distinctive bones is contentious and in need of revision pending more good material.[32]

Evolution of Ostrich

Cheetah

The cheetah’s chest is deep and its waist is narrow. The coarse, short fur of the cheetah is tan with round black spots measuring from 2 to 3 cm (0.79 to 1.18 in) across, affording it some camouflage while hunting. There are no spots on its white underside, but the tail has spots, which merge to form four to six dark rings at the end. The tail usually ends in a bushy white tuft. The cheetah has a small head with high-set eyes. Black “tear marks” running from the corner of its eyes down the sides of the nose to its mouth keep sunlight out of its eyes and aid in hunting and seeing long distances. Its thin and fragile body make it well-suited to short bursts of high speed, but not to long-distance running.

Agility, rather than raw speed, accounts for much of the cheetah’s ability to catch prey. Cheetahs can accelerate four times as fast as a human (thanks to greater muscle power) and can slow down by 14 kilometers per hour in one stride. They can hunt successfully in densely vegetated areas.[24]

The adult cheetah weighs from 21 to 72 kg (46 to 159 lb). Its total head-and-body length is from 110 to 150 cm (43 to 59 in), while the tail can measure 60 to 84 cm (24 to 33 in) in length.[25][26][27][28] Cheetahs are 66 to 94 cm (26 to 37 in) tall at the shoulder. Males tend to be slightly larger than females and have slightly bigger heads, but there is not a great variation in cheetah sizes and it is difficult to tell males and females apart by appearance alone. Compared to a similarly sized leopard, the cheetah is generally shorter-bodied, but is longer tailed and taller (it averages about 90 cm (35 in) tall) and so it appears more streamlined.

Some cheetahs have a rare fur pattern mutation of larger, blotchy, merged spots. Known as “king cheetahs,” they were once thought to constitute a separate subspecies but are in fact African cheetahs; their unusual fur pattern is the result of a single recessive gene.[29] The “king cheetah” has only been seen in the wild a handful of times, but it has been bred in captivity.

Comparative illustration of a leopard (left) and cheetah (right)

The cheetah’s paws have semi-retractable claws (known only in three other cat species: the fishing cat, the flat-headed cat and theIriomote cat), offering extra grip in its high-speed pursuits. The ligament structure of the cheetah’s claws is the same as those of other cats; it simply lacks the sheath of skin and fur present in other varieties, and therefore, with the exception of the dewclaw, the claws are always visible. The dewclaw is much shorter and straighter than that of other cats.

Adaptations that enable the cheetah to run as fast as it does include large nostrils that allow for increased oxygen intake, and an enlarged heart and lungs that work together to circulate oxygen efficiently. During a typical chase, its respiratory rate increases from 60 to 150 breaths per minute.[14] While running, in addition to having good traction due to its semi-retractable claws, the cheetah uses its tail as a rudder-like means of steering[30] to allow it to make sharp turns, necessary to outflank prey animals that often make such turns to escape.

Cheetah ‘s skull

Unlike true big cats of subfamily Pantherinae, the cheetah can purr as it inhales, but cannot roar. By contrast, the big cats can roar but cannot purr, except while exhaling. The cheetah is still considered by some to be the smallest of the big cats. While it is often mistaken for the leopard, the cheetah does have distinguishing features, such as the aforementioned long “tear-streak” lines that run from the corners of its eyes to its mouth, and spots that are not “rosettes”. The thinner body frame of the cheetah is also very different from that of the leopard.

The cheetah is a vulnerable species. Of all the big cats, it is the least able to adapt to new environments. It has always proved difficult to breed in captivity, although recently a few zoos have managed to succeed at this. One technique has been to introduce a dog as a playmate and guard dog to enable a captive cheetah to feel less threatened.[31]

Once widely hunted for its fur, the cheetah now suffers more from the loss of both habitat and prey, conflict with humans and the illegal pet trade.

The cheetah was formerly considered to be particularly primitive among the cats and to have evolved approximately 18 million years ago. However, new research suggests the last common ancestor of all 40 existing species of felines lived more recently than about 11 million years ago. The same research indicates that the cheetah, while highly derived morphologically, is not of particularly ancient lineage, having separated from its closest living relatives (Puma concolor, the cougar, and Puma yaguarondi, the jaguarundi) around five million years ago.[17] These felids have not changed appreciably since they first appeared in the fossil record.

Cheetah